This combined interest in arts and sciences stood him in good stead as a journalist on the celebrated Vossiche Zeitung where his knowledge of music, and his readiness to express a strong opinion on almost anything, were the basis of his enormous reputation as a critic. He became a real celebrity in Berlin as a result of his outspoken writing. This led to the saying that ‘the true Berliner only believes in the correctness of his own hard-won opinions once they have been confirmed for him by Rellstab’. Henriette, oder die schöne Sängerin, a roman à clef (published under the pseudonym of Freimund Zuschauer) featuring the soprano Henriette Sontag thinly disguised, earned him three months in jail for libel; and some years later (1837) he was imprisoned for six weeks as a result of his campaign against the overweening influence of Berlin’s Generalmusikdirektor, Gaspare Spontini.
Despite the appearance of being a fighter for modern causes, Rellstab was, on the whole, a conservative who resisted the success of the later romantics. Weber was his idea of a modern composer. He heard the young Mendelssohn playing for Goethe in Weimar (the great old poet was unencouraging about Rellstab’s work) and Mendelssohn’s music represented the chronological limit of Rellstab’s sympathies: composers like Chopin and Schumann were weighed in the balance and found wanting. Liszt (who set some of his poems) was excused Rellstab’s venom, and his later relationship with Meyerbeer was less a result of musical sympathy than business acumen; the poet was a busy translator of that composer’s libretti when they found an enormous vogue in German houses. Rellstab divided composers into two classes: the premier league was Bach, Handel, Gluck, Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven; the best of the also-rans were Cherubini, Spohr, Weber, Mendelssohn, and his two teachers Berger and Klein. In the midst of his musical work and writings Rellstab wrote a great deal else, including the highly successful historical novel 1812 (1834) and a collection of stories entitled Sommerfrüchte.
Like a great many men who enjoy success early in life, Rellstab remained stuck in his glory days. His posthumously published autobiography Aus meinem Leben (1861) ends with a poignant chapter concerning his visit to Beethoven in Vienna in 1825. If this is a true account (which can never be proved), Beethoven comes across as a great human being as well as artist, genuinely interested in the poet’s work, gravely encouraging, and noble in every aspect. (It was Rellstab’s critique of Beethoven’s Piano Sonata Op 27 No 2 that led to that work being nicknamed ‘The Moonlight’). Rellstab had hoped to interest Beethoven in his libretti (Weber had been tempted by his Dido) but, failing this, he left the great composer his poems. It is the manuscripts of these which were said to have been passed on to Schubert by Beethoven’s secretary, Anton Schindler.
The poet never directly commented on Schubert’s settings of his work. But at least he took the trouble to visit Schubert’s grave in the Währinger cemetery in 1841, writing a few complimentary, though somewhat patronising, words, an accolade of the kind reserved for women composers, or mere writers of songs. Rellstab little realised that the sole reason his creative writing (as opposed to his more significant work as a critic) continues to be of any interest is because of his connection to Schubert. He died on 28 November 1860, some 32 years after Schubert who was only two years his senior.
from notes by Graham Johnson © 2000
Schubert: The Hyperion Schubert Edition, Vol. 37 – John Mark Ainsley, Anthony Rolfe Johnson & Michael Schade
Archive Service; also available on CDS44201/40CDJ33037
Alphabetical listing of all musical works
|Auf dem Strom, D943 (Schubert)|
|Es rauschen die Winde, S294 First version (Liszt)|
|Herbst, D945 (Schubert)|
|Lebensmut, D937 (Schubert)|
|Schwanengesang, D957 Part 1 (Schubert)|
|Ständchen, Op 49 No 6 (Lachner)|