Sinfonia grave: La Zorzi [3'17]
Entrada de clarines [0'55]
Canción de clarín [1'04]
Otra canción, con eco [1'28]
This is the first record in a projected series on Hyperion by His Majestys Sagbutts and Cornetts. The works featured comprehensively survey the remarkable repertoire composed over two hundred years in Italy, Germany and Spain and reveal an astonishing breadth of atmosphere. The musical pomp and splendour of bygone royal ceremony can be answered by the most tender and delicate of chamber music: all legitimate repertoire for what was in the past recognized as the most versatile of all instrumental ensembles.
The noble combination of cornetts and sackbuts was among the most expressive and versatile of instrumental colours available to composers of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. It was a sound that could be heard in many musical contexts: for example, in consort or in alternation with voices in the extravagant services of the great Italian and Spanish churches (above all, the Basilica of St Mark’s in Venice); in aristocratic entertainments such as the intermedii of northern Italy or the royal masques of Jacobean England; and in the ceremonial and devotional music for the courts and free cities of Lutheran Germany.
Since its formation in 1982, His Majestys Sagbutts and Cornetts has explored and revived this richly varied vein of music, and the present recording offers a cross-section of its repertoire in a musical Grand Tour of three of the countries in which cornetts and sackbuts flourished.
The agility of the cornett gave rise to a highly florid style of playing, the art of diminution, the breaking up of a composed musical line with fast figures (divisions) and ornaments, was largely an improvised art, but fortunately some of the best players wrote down examples of their style. One such virtuoso was Giovanni Bassano who, in 1576, became a member of the instrumental ensemble at St Mark’s and who, in 1585, published Ricercate, passaggi et cadentie. This collection includes divisions on Palestrina’s popular madrigal Vestiva i colli, recorded here as a cornett solo with the accompanying voices played on the organ. Note that Bassano avoids obscuring the structure of the original by leaving the contrapuntal entries largely undecorated.
The sackbut, direct forerunner of the modern trombone (the Italians already called it ‘trombone’, or ‘large trumpet’) could match the vocal timbre of the cornett thanks to its relatively narrow bore and shallow mouthpiece. Despite the technical demands imposed by its slide mechanism, it too was often played in a florid manner, a style that can be heard in the bold and adventurous Sonata duodecima published in 1621 by another wind player at St Mark’s, Dario Castello.
Composers also used the sackbut’s majestic sonority to contrast with the agile treble instruments, as in Biagio Marini’s Sonata a 6. Marini was a much-travelled violinist—his position at St Mark’s under Monteverdi (from 1615) was only one of many appointments in Italy and Germany—and the top two parts in this Sonata are specified as for violins. But violin music was habitually considered as also suitable for the cornett; indeed, apart from special effects such as double-stopping, there was little difference in style between the two instruments’ repertoire, and some magpie-like stealing of gems is perfectly in order. Marini’s Affetti musicali, Op 1, of 1617, source of the eloquent little Sinfonia grave: La Zorzi, is specified as for violins or cornetts. On the other hand, his muscular Sonate a quattro tromboni is hardly imaginable played in any alternative scoring.
Monteverdi’s influence is clear in the music of the Cremonese organist Tarquinio Merula. His Chiacona for two treble instruments and continuo may well have been inspired by Monteverdi’s madrigal for two tenors, Zefiro torna.
Giovanni Battista Buonamente was another well-travelled violinist from northern Italy who, in his native Mantua, may have worked with Monteverdi. He published a good deal of instrumental music in seven books, of which the first three are now lost. By the time his sixth book of Sonate et Canzoni was printed in 1636 he was established in Assisi as maestro de capella at the Basilica of St Francis. His six-part Sonata and Canzona represent the splendid Venetian instrumental style of the Renaissance—established above all by Giovanni Gabrieli—in a late phase of development. There are vestiges of counterpoint, but the predominant effect is imposingly chordal and architectural, enhanced in the Sonata by the wide spacing of the outer parts. Both pieces have a contrasting triple-time section followed, in the Canzona, by a passage of tremolo, a popular effect at that time. Both close with a section making effective re-use of music heard at the opening. (It is hard, by this time, to perceive any significant difference between works entitled ‘sonata’ and ‘canzona’.)
For Spanish styles of ornamentation we must turn to music for other instruments, such as the viol divisions of Diego Ortíz, or the music of keyboard players such as the great organist of the church of San Salvador in Seville, Francisco Correa de Arauxo. The tientos (polyphonic fantasias) printed in Correa’s Facultad organica of 1626 preserve a special Andalucian type of ornamentation that marries the international style of the day with local traditions, still strongly influenced by Arab music. Often conceived for an organ mixture stop called ‘corneta’ that runs from middle G sharp up to treble A, Correa’s soloistic keyboard divisions prove ideal, if technically demanding, for the real cornett. Here David Staff and Jeremy West make a convincing case for such transcription in the flamboyant duetting of the Tiento de segundo tono, No 53 in Facultad organica.
Another feature of Spanish keyboard music that invites transcription is the fact that up to the end of the seventeenth century it was normally written strictly in four parts notated in open score. There was a similar tradition in Italy where some works, such as canzonas by Merulo and Gabrieli, exist in both keyboard and ensemble versions. Thus a work like the Batalla by José Ximénez, in four-part open score, becomes an attractive candidate for ensemble peformance. However, the ranges oblige the transcriber to increase the number of parts to six; this allows each player some well-deserved rest, as well as giving a fuller texture at climactic moments. Ximénez was organist of La Seo, Saragossa, in the mid-seventeenth century, and descriptive battle pieces like this, often featuring motifs derived from the battle chansons of Clément Janequin, are typical of the Spanish repertoire and were probably associated with the Feast of St Michael. Here the intended tempo relationships of the alternate duple- and triple-time sections are unclear: we have opted for a scheme that creates the impression of each section being faster than the last, while returning to the original tempo at the end.
Moving on to the later seventeenth century, our rather free version of the Canciones de clarines was suggested by Edward Tarr’s transcription for trumpet and organ of an anonymous organ piece that is itself based, at least in part, on orchestral movements by Lully (the second movement is a minuet from Atys, and the closing gigue comes from Bellérophon). The suite of four fanfare-like Canciones, aptly symbolizing the end of Spain’s musical isolation through much of the seventeenth century, appears in a large, retrospective manuscript collection compiled between 1706 and 1709 by the priest Francisco Martín y Coll entitled Flores de música. The Canciones exploit the new trumpet stops typical of Spanish organs, and our transcription contrasts a natural trumpet in D with an ensemble of cornett, four sackbuts and organ.
Johann Schein, like Scheidt, was associated with the greatest German composer of the time, Heinrich Schütz, and was a predecessor of Bach in the post of Cantor at the Thomaskirche in Leipzig. Schein’s Banchetto musicale of 1617 is an outstanding collection of dance and entertainment music. It is the source of the highly original A minor Padoana, a piece that is surely too complex for actual dancing. Each section is based on long pedal notes, over which Schein builds short motifs into expressive, unexpected harmonies.
The young organist, violinist and cornettist Johann Vierdanck started his career in Dresden, where his master Schütz declared that he was ‘a fine, modest person and making a very good, solid beginning in composition’. He spent his later years, from 1635, as organist of the Marienkirche in Stralsund on the Baltic coast. The two sonatas recorded here come from his second collection of instrumental music, the Capricci, Canzoni und Sonaten of 1641, and show that, despite his geographical isolation, Vierdanck was in touch with up-to-date musical styles. Sonata 28 sets a concertante solo cornett part against a trio of sackbuts, skilfully scored to sound as a full ‘tutti’, while Sonata 31 is based on the song ‘Als ich einmal Lust bekam’ by Gabriel Voigtländer, and makes remarkable use of unison passages and vigorous chordal writing—a far cry from the canzona’s polyphonic origins in Italy.
The keyboard solos
Harmonic boldness characterizes the E minor Toccata III of Matthias Weckmann, a composer from Thuringia who, like his colleagues Schütz and Froberger, played an important role in disseminating Italian styles through Lutheran Germany.
The organ and harpsichord have been tuned by Malcolm Greenhalgh in a meantone temperament which gives the special colour to such adventurous solo music, as well as distinctive resonance (the result of the low thirds, sixths and leading notes) to the wind ensemble accompanied by organ continuo.
Timothy Roberts © 1996