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author of text

<Medea (using Seneca’s Latin version of the text) for male chorus and ensemble, was commissioned for the Théâtre de France. It shares the instrumental freedom which Xenakis unleashed in what has become a classic modern masterpiece, Nomos Alpha for cello. The youthful Xenakis had often wondered how the music of ancient Greek theatre might have sounded, how the actors, chorus and musicians might have chanted the text and played the aulos (wind instrument) and in this work he provided his solution. He treated the instruments as voices and the voices as instruments to create an implacable work, extending the language phonetically with whispers and hisses, repeated phrases and even banging stones. The atmosphere is archaic, with a setting which is both raucous and primitive. The composer writes of the work:

It was Jean-Louis Barrault in 1967 who asked me to write the music for Medea of Seneca for Maria Casares’ Medea in a stage version of Jorge Lavelli with the Ensemble of Musique Vivante under the direction of Diego Masson for the Théâtre de l’Odéon in Paris.
I hesitated because I knew Seneca as a pseudo-philosopher, an imperial courtier, and above all a Roman who sought, like all the Romans of that period, to emulate the ancient Greek masterpieces.
But in reading the Latin text written in the first century ad I was seduced by its violent sonority, its barbarity, and so I agreed. I used a chanted male chorus, to preserve the sonority of the Latin particularly in verses 301 to 379. These verses relate the story of the maritime journey of the Argonauts, hence the stones—symbol of the virgin sea [‘stones’ is a reference to the rocks that guarded the entrance to the Euxine Sea by clashing against each other when anything passed between them]. This, however, is only a very small part of the Medea of Seneca which consists of a total of 1,027 verses.

from notes by Nouritza Matossian © 1998

Première œuvre vocale composée par Xenakis (1967), Medea (qui utilise le texte latin de Sénèque), pour chœur d’hommes et ensemble instrumental, fut commandée pour le Théâtre de France. Elle recèle la même liberté instrumentale que Nomos Alpha pour violoncelle, morceau devenu un chef-d’œuvre moderne classique. Le jeune Xenakis s’était souvent demandé comment la musique du théâtre grec ancien sonnait, comment les acteurs, le chœur et les musiciens chantaient le texte et jouaient l’aulos (instrument à vent). En réponse, il traita les instruments comme des voix et les voix comme des instruments pour créer une œuvre implacable, prolongeant le langage phonétiquement par des chuchotements et des sifflements, des phrases répétées et même des pierres qui s’entrechoquent. L’atmosphère est archaïque, avec une mise en musique à la fois rauque et primitive.

extrait des notes rédigées par Nouritza Matossian © 1998
Français: Hypérion

Chronologisch gesehen (1967) ist das erste Vokalwerk Medea (unter Verwendung der lateinischen Version des Seneca Textes) für Männerchor und Ensemble, das für das Théâtre de France in Auftrag gegeben wurde. Es teilt die instrumentale Freiheit, die Xenakis entfesselte und aus der ein klassisches modernes Meisterwerk, Nomos Alpha für Cello, entstand. Der jugendliche Xenakis hatte sich oft gefragt, wie die Musik des alten griechischen Theaters klang, wie die Schauspieler, der Chor und die Musiker den Text rhythmisch aussprachen und Aulos (ein Blasinstrument) spielten—hier lieferte er die Antwort. Er behandelte Instrumente wie Stimmen und Stimmen wie Instrumente, um ein unerbittliches Werk durch eine phonetische Ausdehnung der Sprache mit Geflüster und Zischen, durch wiederholte Sätze und sogar durch Steineklopfen zu schaffen. Die Atmosphäre ist archaisch, mit einem sowohl rauhen als auch primitiven Rahmen.

aus dem Begleittext von Nouritza Matossian © 1998
Deutsch: Wendy Geddert


Xenakis: Choral Music
CDA66980Archive Service


Track 5 on CDA66980 [22'49] Archive Service

Track-specific metadata for CDA66980 track 5

Recording date
25 July 1997
Recording venue
St Silas the Martyr, Kentish Town, London, United Kingdom
Recording producer
Gary Cole
Recording engineer
Gary Cole
Hyperion usage
  1. Xenakis: Choral Music (CDA66980)
    Disc 1 Track 5
    Release date: February 1998
    Deletion date: October 2019
    Archive Service
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