Hyperion Records

Joseph and his brethren
first performed 2 March 1744
author of text

'Handel: Joseph and his Brethren' (CDA67171/3)
Handel: Joseph and his Brethren
Part 1 Overture: Andante ľ Larghetto ľ Allegro ľ Menuet
Part 1 Scene 1. Air: Be firm, my soul! nor faint beneath (Joseph)
Part 1 Scene 2 No 1. Recitative: Joseph, thy fame has reach'd great Pharaoh's ear (Phanor/Joseph)
Part 1 Scene 2 No 2. Air: Come, divine inspirer, come (Joseph)
Part 1 Scene 2 No 3. Recitative: Pardon, that I so long forgot thee, Joseph! (Phanor/Joseph)
Part 1 Scene 2 No 4. Air: Ingratitude's the queen of crimes (Phanor)
Part 1 Scene 3 No 1. Recitative: Thus, stranger, I have laid my troubled thoughts (Pharaoh/Joseph)
Part 1 Scene 3 No 2. Chorus: O God of Joseph, gracious shed thy spirit on thy servant's head (Egyptians)
Part 1 Scene 3 No 3. Accompagnato: Pharaoh, thy dreams are one (Joseph)
Part 1 Scene 3 No 4. Recitative: Divine interpreter! What oracle (Pharaoh/Joseph)
Part 1 Scene 3 No 5. Air: O lovely youth, with wisdom crown'd (Asenath)
Part 1 Scene 3 No 6. Recitative: Wear, worthy man, this Royal signet wear (Pharaoh)
Part 1 Scene 3 No 7. Chorus: Joyful sounds, melodious strain! (Egyptians)
Part 1 Scene 4 No 1. Recitative: Whence this unwonted ardour in my breast? (Asenath)
Part 1 Scene 4 No 2. Air: I feel a spreading flame within my veins (Asenath)
Part 1 Scene 4 No 3. Recitative: Fair Asenath (Joseph/Pharaoh/Potiphera/Asenath))
Part 1 Scene 5 No 1. Duet: Celestial virgin! Godlike youth! (Joseph/Asenath)
Part 1 Scene 5 No 2. Recitative: Now, Potiphera, instant to the temple (Pharaoh)
Part 1 Scene 5 No 3: Grand march during the procession
Part 1 Scene 6 No 1. Recitative: 'Tis done, ľ the sacred knot is tied (High Priest)
Part 1 Scene 6 No 2. Chorus: Immortal pleasures crown this pair (Egyptians)
Part 1 Scene 6 No 3. Recitative: Glorious and happy is thy lot, O Zaphnath! (Pharaoh)
Part 1 Scene 6 No 4. Air: Since the race of time begun (Pharaoh)
Part 1 Scene 6 No 5. Chorus: Swift our numbers, swiftly roll (Egyptians)
Part 2 Scene 1 No 1. Chorus: Hail, thou youth, by Heaven belov'd! (Egyptians)
Part 2 Scene 1 No 2. Recitative: How vast a theme has Egypt for applause! (Phanor/Asenath)
Part 2 Scene 1 No 3. Air: Our fruits, whilst yet in blossom, die (Asenath)
Part 2 Scene 1 No 4. Recitative: He's Egypt's common parent, gives her bread (Phanor)
Part 2 Scene 1 No 5. Chorus: Blest be the man by pow'r unstain'd (Egyptians)
Part 2 Scene 1 No 6. Recitative: Phanor, we mention not his highest glory! (Asenath/Phanor)
Part 2 Scene 1 No 7. Air: Together, lovely innocents, grow up (Asenath)
Part 2 Scene 1 No 8. Recitative: He then is silent, then again exclaims (Asenath)
Part 2 Scene 2 No 1. Accompagnato: Where are these brethren ů why this base delay? (Simeon)
Part 2 Scene 2 No 2. Air: Remorse, confusion, horror, fear (Simeon)
Part 2 Scene 3 No 1. Recitative: This Hebrew prisoner (Phanor/Joseph)
Part 2 Scene 3 No 2. Accompagnato: Ye departed hours (Joseph)
Part 2 Scene 3 No 3. Air: The peasant tastes the sweets of life (Joseph)
Part 2 Scene 3 No 4/Scene 4 No 1. Recitative: But Simeon comes (Joseph/Simeon)
Part 2 Scene 4 No 2. Air: Impostor! Ah! my foul offence (Simeon)
Part 2 Scene 5 No 1. Recitative: Whence, Asenath, this grief that hangs upon thee (Joseph/Asenath)
Part 2 Scene 5 No 2. Air: The silver stream, that all its way (Asenath)
Part 2 Scene 5 No 3/Scene 6 No 1. Recitative: Tell me, O tell me thy heart's malady (Asenath/Joseph/Phanor/Judah)
Part 2 Scene 6 No 2. Air: To keep afar from all offence (Judah)
Part 2 Scene 6 No 3. Chorus: Thus one, with ev'ry virtue crown'd (Brethren)
Part 2 Scene 7 No 1. Accompagnato: Once more, O pious Zaphnath, at thy feet (Reuben/Judah)
Part 2 Scene 7 No 2. Recitative: This kiss, my gracious Lord (Benjamin/Joseph/Judah)
Part 2 Scene 7 No 3. Air: Thou deign'st to call thy servant 'son' (Benjamin)
Part 2 Scene 7 No 4. Recitative: Sweet innocence! divine simplicity! (Joseph/Benjamin/Reuben/Judah)
Part 2 Scene 7 No 5. Chorus: O God, who in thy heav'nly hand (Brethren)
Part 3 Overture. Sinfonia: Allegro
Part 3 Scene 1 No 1. Recitative: What say'st thou, Phanor? Prove these strangers then (Asenath/Phanor)
Part 3 Scene 1 No 2. Air: The wanton favours of the great (Phanor)
Part 3 Scene 2 No 1. Recitative: Whence so disturb'd, my Lord? Let not the crime (Asenath/Joseph)
Part 3 Scene 2 No 2. Air: Ah Jealousy, thou pelican (Asenath)
Part 3 Scene 2 No 3. Recitative: O wrong me not! thy Zaphnath never harbour'd (Joseph/Asenath)
Part 3 Scene 2 No 4. Air: The people's favour, and the smiles of pow'r (Joseph)
Part 3 Scene 2 No 5. Recitative: Art thou not Zaphnath? Is not Egypt sav'd (Asenath)
Part 3 Scene 2 No 6. Air: Prophetic raptures swell my breast (Asenath)
Part 3 Scene 2 No 7/Scene 3/Scene 4 No 1. Recitative: They come, ľ and indignation in their looks (Joseph/Simeon/Phanor/Benjamin)
Part 3 Scene 4 No 2. Accompagnato: What! without me? Ah, how return in peace! (Benjamin)
Part 3 Scene 4 No 3. Arioso: O pity! (Benjamin/Joseph)
Part 3 Scene 4 No 4. Recitative: To prison with him! (Joseph/Simeon/Reuben)
Part 3 Scene 4 No 5. Arioso: O gracious God (Simeon)
Part 3 Scene 4 No 6. Chorus: Eternal Monarch of the sky (Brethren)
Part 3 Scene 5 No 1: But peace, Zaphnath returns (Simeon/Joseph/Judah)
Part 3 Scene 5 No 2. Air: Thou hadst, my Lord (Simeon)
Part 3 Scene 5 No 3. Recitative: Give, give him up the lad (Simeon)
Part 3 Scene 5 No 4. Recitative: I can no longer (Joseph/Brethren)
Part 3 Scene 6 No 1. Recitative: Whilst the Nile and Memphis (Asenath/Joseph)
Part 3 Scene 6 No 2. Duet: What's sweeter than the new-blown rose? (Asenath/Joseph)
Part 3 Scene 6 No 3. Recitative: With songs of ardent gratitude and praise (Joseph)
Part 3 Scene 6 No 4. Chorus: Alleluia. We will rejoice in thy salvation

Joseph and his brethren
The six years from 1739 brought about some of Handel’s finest large-scale works. In 1739 came Saul, Israel in Egypt and the Ode for St Cecilia’s Day, the following year L’Allegro, il Penseroso ed il Moderato, in 1742 Messiah, the next year Samson, in 1744 Semele and Joseph and his Brethren, and the year after Hercules and Belshazzar. Of these works, Joseph (and, to a lesser degree, Hercules) has been curiously neglected. In Handel’s day the oratorio was well thought of: after the first of its four performances in March 1744 Handel was able to bank £250 and he revived it—as usual, with revisions—for pairs of performances in 1745 and 1747, and then for single performances in 1755 and 1757.

The Earl of Egmont was impressed at his first hearing, calling the oratorio an ‘inimitable composition’ and that indefatigable Handel supporter Mrs Delany reported that audiences were good: ‘The oratorios fill very well, notwithstanding the spite of the opera party … I fancy Handel will have a second subscription’. The rehearsals had not been trouble-free, and there are enough stories about Handel’s ill-tempered rehearsals for us to realize that he was not an easy man for whom to work. On 25 February Mrs Delany wrote to her sister: ‘Handel is mightily out of humour … Sullivan, who is to sing Joseph, is a block with a very fine voice, and Beard has no voice at all’.

Irritating to Handel or not, the cast at the first Covent Garden performance on 2 March 1744 was a distinguished one, including the countertenor ‘block with a fine voice’ Daniel Sullivan as Joseph and Elisabeth Duparc (otherwise known as ‘La Francescina’) as Asenath. The tenor John Beard (one of Handel’s most favoured soloists who continued—clearly finding his voice again—to sing for Handel well into the 1750s) sang the roles of both Simeon and Judah, the German bass Thomas Reinhold the parts of Pharaoh and Reuben, the contralto Esther Young the role of Phanor, and ‘The Boy’ (probably Samuel Champness) sang Benjamin. In the four revivals between 1745 and 1757 the parts for Joseph, Benjamin, Phanor and the High Priest were altered, with the casting of different voices bringing about new arias and transpositions of existing ones. Some of these alterations make the score confusing, especially in the recitative writing for Joseph, where there are frequently two possible sets of notes. In 1745 a boy treble may have sung the role, explaining Handel’s inking-in of some new notes, and the nineteenth-century Handel editor Chrysander added to the confusion by claiming that the treble took part in the first performance—which the evidence shows is not the case. Our performance follows (as much as we can ascertain) the original edition heard in the two 1744 Covent Garden performances.

Twentieth-century scholars have been unkind about Joseph and his Brethren. Winton Dean starts his chapter (in Handel’s Dramatic Oratorios and Masques) with the statement, ‘Of all the oratorios Deborah and Joseph come nearest to complete failure’. This view of Joseph seems largely to have been based (as was Dean’s opinion of Deborah, restored after its recent Hyperion recording to a better reputation) on Dean’s views of the libretto, and not really on the music at all. As ever, Handel’s arias and choruses are full of good, varied music, the prison scenes are especially theatrical and effective, the recitative writing and the accompagnatos are particularly colourful in their harmonic invention, and (drawing shamelessly on the time-honoured theatrical tradition of placing an innocent child centre-stage) the writing for young Benjamin can have left few dry eyes in the house.

The libretto
The librettist for Joseph was James Miller (1708–1744), an Oxford-educated vicar who had spent much of the 1730s adapting and writing satires and comedies for the London theatres. Miller is described as having been ‘firm and steadfast in his Principles, ardent in his Friendships, and somewhat precipitate in his Resentments’. As a High Church man writing low-level comedy (albeit under a pen-name) he effectively wrote himself out from promotion within the church and, as a satirist, he predictably made many enemies, beginning with his first London comedy, The Humours of Oxford, which ‘gave considerable umbrage’. Later in the decade he entered into a controversial public debate with the publication of an article entitled Are these things so? The previous question, from an Englishman in his grotto to a great man at Court, which provoked three strong pamphlet responses.

By the time Miller started writing the libretto for Joseph he was Rector of Upcerne, Dorset, and, according to Donald Burrows, ‘although apparently a supporter of the Hanoverians, was fundamentally sympathetic to the dramatic stance accorded to Joseph as an uncorrupted public servant surrounded by the temptations and uncertainties of power, and occasionally envying the peasant’s supposedly simple life’. Miller’s much-criticized libretto was in fact based on works by others: in 1711 Abbé Genest had written a five-act play Joseph which was adapted by the Italian Apostolo Zeno for Antonio Caldara’s oratorio Giuseppe, first performed in Vienna in 1722. A separate influence may have been Elizabeth Rowe’s The History of Joseph: a Poem which was published in eight books in 1736. Zeno portrayed Joseph as a lachrymose character, and Rowe saw Asenath as a former ‘virgin priestess’, which may explain various references in Miller’s libretto and Asenath’s occasional prophetic utterances.

For Parts II and III of Joseph Miller was able to lean on Zeno’s libretto, which deals with the visit of Joseph’s brothers to Egypt and the reconciliation and reunification of Joseph’s family—action that is fairly confined in both time and place. For Part I, however, Miller needed to outline Joseph’s interpretation of Pharaoh’s dreams, his transformation from prisoner to Court officer and his courtship and marriage. This action takes place some years before Parts II and III, and necessarily compresses the classical unities of time and place to tell the events of several months and different locations. Not content with this difficulty, Miller takes a thoroughly dramatic view of the events (including two fine prison scenes), and introduces topics related to the development of relationships, including the effects of ingratitude and jealousy. Packing all this into his libretto, the plot does become more than a little confused, but eighteenth-century audiences would have known such a familiar biblical story well. The original wordbook contained an ‘Advertisement’ which filled in the missing parts of the background. This Advertisement is reproduced below and for those whose memories of the finer details of the Old Testament have become a little rusty it is well worth a read!

Handel’s score and the plot—a synopsis
Handel’s score was largely newly composed, containing surprisingly few borrowings from previous works. The four-section overture, full of gravitas, was a fine one: Handel sets an unusually sombre tone, opening the work with two slow movements, followed by a serious fugue and a simple minuet. The first scene is dramatic and could easily have come straight from one of the operas: we are introduced to Joseph who is in prison, ‘reclining in a melancholy posture’, resignedly accepting a fate that he cannot understand. Phanor, Pharaoh’s chief butler, enters and requests that Joseph assist the ruler in interpreting his dream. Joseph senses the hand of fate at work in his melodious aria ‘Come, divine inspirer, come’ and Phanor, having apologized to Joseph for forgetting him for so long (the reasons for which would have been supplied to the audience in the ‘Advertisement’), muses on ingratitude. The scene changes to Pharaoh’s Palace, where the ruler requests Joseph’s help. Joseph explains that only Heaven can do this, and the chorus calls for Jehovah’s assistance for Joseph in revealing the truths behind Pharaoh’s ‘mystic dreams’. Joseph carries out his task in another dramatic accompagnato which splits into two distinct themes, one arpeggionic and lively, the other legato and dreamy, explaining that there will be seven years of plenty followed by seven years of dearth. Pharaoh, much impressed, appoints Joseph to be second-in-command of the land.

Asenath too is impressed, although by rather different qualities, venting her feelings in the delightful aria ‘O lovely youth, with wisdom crown’d’. Pharaoh awards Joseph the title of ‘Zaphnath-Paaneah’ (which Miller explained in a footnote as ‘Saviour of the World’) and the chorus rejoices in suitably grand fashion. Asenath now reveals her growing desire for Joseph in an ornate aria ‘I feel a spreading flame’ and Joseph wastes no time in asking Pharaoh for her hand in marriage. Permission being immediately granted, we are treated to the duet ‘Celestial virgin! Godlike youth!’, a ‘Grand March during the procession’ of the wedding (based on the Dead March from Samson and bringing the first entry of trumpets and timpani), the chorus ‘Immortal pleasures crown this pair’ and, to conclude the Act, Pharaoh’s splendid aria ‘Since the race of time begun’ which is translated at the midpoint into a joyful chorus.

Before Part II begins, the predicted seven years of prosperity have elapsed, and now the people are suffering seven years of famine. Joseph’s shrewd management of resources is proving successful, and the opening chorus (including a fugue based on ‘Bless the glad earth’, from Semele) and succeeding recitative indicate that his popularity with the Egyptians is great. The lively second section of Asenath’s aria ‘Our fruits, whilst yet in blossom, die’ also confirms this, as does Phanor, and the chorus praise Joseph’s virtue and his incorruptibility. Despite this fame, Joseph is unhappy, missing his native land, and Asenath sings a touching aria quoting Joseph’s words to his children: ‘Together, lovely innocents, grow up’. In the following recitative Asenath reveals that Joseph is suffering sudden mood changes, one moment silent, the next exclaiming, ‘Inhuman Brethren! O unhappy father’, but she does not understand why.

The scene changes to another prison, this time one in which Simeon, brother of Joseph, has been incarcerated for a year, held as a hostage. In a dramatic accompagnato and aria (‘Remorse, confusion’) he berates his brothers for not coming to rescue him, and guiltily remembers the ruse that he and his brothers pulled to fake Joseph’s death. Joseph orders Phanor to bring Simeon to his presence. Whilst Phanor fetches the prisoner, Joseph muses wistfully in an especially fine, extended accompagnato and then in a lyrical siciliano aria (‘The peasant tastes the sweets of life’) that, despite his enormous power in Egypt, his rule is nothing but slavery to him. In the complex recitative that follows, Joseph prepares to meet his treacherous brother Simeon. Trembling, Simeon is brought to Joseph, who demands to know why the remaining brothers have not returned as had been agreed. Mention of Joseph’s old father (who is grieving at the supposed death of Joseph) and Benjamin (the youngest brother, who has remained at home to comfort the father) tests Joseph’s fortitude to maintain his cover but, hearing of his own ‘death’ he tells Simeon that he knows he is lying and exits. Simeon, in the anguished ‘Impostor! Ah! my foul offence’, is distraught. Next it is Asenath’s turn to be melancholy: she explains that she cannot be happy whilst Joseph is sad, and sings the two-part aria ‘The silver stream, that all its way’. Questioned by Asenath as to his ‘heart’s malady’, Joseph is evasive, making excuses of ‘A slight disorder—public cares’ but, hearing that ‘a youth of matchless beauty’ (Benjamin) has arrived, promises that ‘Soon thou shalt know’.

Phanor brings in Joseph’s brothers, calming the nervous Judah with the opinion that Joseph is a fair ruler who will not ‘condemn you wrongfully’. Judah sings the splendid aria ‘To keep afar from all offence’, and the brothers (represented by the choir) sing a chorus whose material originally came in the Chandos anthem Have mercy upon me. The brothers implore Joseph’s help, first through Reuben, then Judah, and finally the young Benjamin, whom Joseph calls ‘son’. Benjamin sings a touching aria (‘Thou deign’st to call thy servant, ‘son’’) in which he notes the uncanny resemblance of Joseph to his father. Joseph is greatly moved by the boy’s innocence, and especially by mention of his father, and leaves weeping with ‘joy and anguish’. The chorus prays that Israel be delivered from its troubles: the second section introduces an extraordinarily chromatic countersubject and the Act ends with a moving statement of their faith in God.

Part III begins with a lively Sinfonia which leads into a conversation between Asenath and Phanor: we learn that a silver cup has been stolen, that Joseph’s brothers are suspected, and that they have been captured. Phanor sings the aria ‘The wanton favours of the great’. Asenath is still puzzled that Joseph is ‘so disturb’d’ and, with his lack of communication, says that he must be jealous. She sings the splendid aria ‘Ah Jealousy, thou pelican’: the text of this aria has drawn ribald comment from some twentieth-century commentators, but is actually a serious reference to the erroneous eighteenth-century belief that pelicans would peck their own breasts to draw blood on which to feed their youngsters.

Finally Joseph rises to Asenath’s bait and reveals part of his disquiet, the fact that his father is ‘inconsolable and wretched’ and, more immediately, hungry. Asenath suggests that Joseph should send food from Egypt, but Joseph counters that this would be a corrupt act. Asenath suggests bringing Joseph’s father into Egypt: Joseph’s popularity with both Pharaoh and the people is as high as ever. Joseph, in the aria ‘The people’s favour’ tells that such acclaim can quickly be lost. Asenath offers to plead with Pharaoh and sings an extended and virtuosic aria, ‘Prophetic raptures swell my breast’. The brothers appear in chains, ‘indignation in their looks’, and are accused of the theft of the missing silver cup, which they deny. It is found in the innocent Benjamin’s sack, and the brothers are told they are to be banished from Egypt. Benjamin is seized, desolately noting that at his birth his mother died, and that now his imprisonment will lead to his father’s death.

Joseph still has to pretend that he does not know his brother: Benjamin movingly pleads that Joseph should remember the affection he showed at their first meeting, but it is to no avail—he is taken to prison. Simeon asks for clemency on humanitarian grounds but Joseph will hear none of it. Reuben reminds Simeon that the brothers once ignored Joseph’s pleas; now they are receiving similar treatment. If they return without Benjamin their father will die of grief. If they stay he will die of famine. First Simeon asks for God’s mercy in the delicious accompagnato ‘O gracious God’ and then the chorus calls for assistance in ‘Eternal Monarch of the sky’. Joseph is angry that the brothers have disobeyed his command to leave the country; Judah explains the sadness that his father will feel if Benjamin is detained. Simeon sings the aria ‘Thou had’st, my Lord, a father once’ and offers to take the young boy’s place. This faith shown, no longer can Joseph hold his secret. ‘Know, I am Joseph’, he explains, and everything is understood and forgiven. All that now remains is for Asenath and Joseph to re-unite, which they do in the duet ‘What’s sweeter than the new-blown rose’, and then the chorus grandly rejoices.

The synopsis supplied by Miller for the original 1744 wordbook
PART I Jacob had Twelve Children, whereof Joseph and Benjamin were the two youngest, and were born to him of Rachel. The superior Affection which Jacob shewed towards Joseph, and the Account which the latter gave his Brethren of some Dreams denoting his own future Grandeur and the Subjection to him, raised their Jealousy and Hatred against him. Hereupon they take an Opportunity, when they were one Day in a Field together, to throw him first into a Pit, and afterwards to draw him out again, and sell him to a Company of mercantile Ishmaelites who were going down to Egypt; persuading their Father Jacob, by the Stratagem of dipping his Coat which they had strip’d him of, in Blood, that he was devoured by a wild Beast.

The Ishmaelites being arrived with Joseph in Egypt, sold him to Potiphar, a principal Officer in Pharaoh’s Court, with whom he lived in high Favour a considerable time, ’till at length, upon the false Accusation of Potiphar’s Wife, he was disgraced and cast into Prison. During his Confinement the Chief Butler, and Chief Baker of Pharaoh’s Court, were thrown into the same Place of the King’s Order; both of whom having a Dream in the same Night, receiv’d an Interpretation from Joseph, which proved true, the chief Baker being within three Days hanged on a Tree, and the chief Butler restored to his Employment as was foretold; but being taken into favour again, he thought no more of his Interpreter, as he had promised to do.

Here then our Drama finds Joseph, two Years after this incident had happened. At this time Pharaoh himself having had two Dreams in the same Night, the First, of Seven fat Kine coming out of the River, which were devoured by Seven other lean Kine which came after them; and the Second, of Seven full Ears of Corn devoured by Seven thin ones. The Wisemen of Egypt could not interpret them. The chief Butler, calling Joseph to remembrance upon this Occasion, spoke of him to the King, who immediately order’d that he should be brought before him; of whom having received a satisfactory Explication of his Dreams, as that they were both of the same Purport, and pointed out Seven Years of Plenty, and Seven of Famine to succeed them; Pharaoh appointed him Ruler over the Land of Egypt, to lay up in the Years of Plenty a Store for the Supply in those of Dearth; at the same time giving to Wife Asenath the daughter of Potiphera, High-priest of On, by whom, during the Years of Plenty, he had two Sons.

PART II The Famine having at length spread itself into all Countries, Jacob hearing that there was Corn in Egypt, sent his ten elder Sons thither to purchase some, keeping Benjamin his youngest with him for fear some accident should befall him. Joseph immediately knew his Brethren, and seeing them at his Feet, he remembered his former Dreams, but did not make himself known to them, speaking roughly, treating them as Spies, and ordering them to return and bring down their younger Brother whom they spoke of, as Proof of their Veracity. Having detained one of them in Prison, by way of a Hostage, he commanded his Officers privately, to restore every one of the others his Money into his Sack, and to send them away with their Corn, for the land of Canaan. Having, after a long time, prevailed on Jacob to let Benjamin go with them, they returned to Egypt and presented him before Joseph, who tenderly embraced him, and was so sensibly affected by the Interview, that, not being able to refrain from Tears, he was obliged to leave the Room. After this he made a great Entertainment for them, giving at the same time a secret Order to his Officers to put his Silver Cup into Benjamin’s Sack.

PART III They had no sooner left the Town the next Morning but they were sent after, brought before Joseph again, and charged with stealing this Cup, when, their sacks being examined, and the Cup found in that belonging to Benjamin, he was doom’d to continue a Slave to Joseph.

The rest of the Brethren refusing to return to their Father without Benjamin with them, and one of them passionately requesting to become a Bondman in his stead, Joseph could refrain no longer, but with Tears gushing from his Eyes, discovered himself to them. This News coming soon to Pharaoh, he ordered Joseph to send immediately, and bring down his Father and the whole family into Egypt, appointing one of the most fruitful Parts of the Country for their Habitation.

from notes by Robert King ę 1996

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Details for CDA67171/3 disc 1 track 23
Part 1 Scene 6 No 4, Air: Since the race of time begun (Pharaoh)
Recording date
25 March 1996
Recording venue
St Jude-on-the-Hill, Hampstead Garden Suburb, London, United Kingdom
Recording producer
Ben Turner
Recording engineer
Philip Hobbs
Hyperion usage
  1. Handel: Joseph and his Brethren (CDA67171/3)
    Disc 1 Track 23
    Release date: October 1996
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