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String Quartet in F major, Op 18 No 1

'Beethoven: String Quartets Op 18 Nos 1 & 2' (CDA66401)
Beethoven: String Quartets Op 18 Nos 1 & 2
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'Beethoven: String Quartets' (CDH55021/8)
Beethoven: String Quartets
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Movement 1: Allegro con brio
Track 1 on CDA66401 [10'02] Archive Service
Track 1 on CDH55021/8 CD1 [10'02] 8CDs Helios (Hyperion's budget label) — Deleted
Movement 2: Adagio affettuoso ed appassionato
Track 2 on CDA66401 [10'24] Archive Service
Track 2 on CDH55021/8 CD1 [10'24] 8CDs Helios (Hyperion's budget label) — Deleted
Movement 3: Scherzo: Allegro molto
Track 3 on CDA66401 [3'30] Archive Service
Track 3 on CDH55021/8 CD1 [3'30] 8CDs Helios (Hyperion's budget label) — Deleted
Movement 4: Allegro
Track 4 on CDA66401 [6'35] Archive Service
Track 4 on CDH55021/8 CD1 [6'35] 8CDs Helios (Hyperion's budget label) — Deleted

String Quartet in F major, Op 18 No 1
The F major Quartet, published as No 1, underwent a comprehensive revision by which it became in many ways the strongest work of the set. Beethoven sent its first version to his friend Carl Amenda, but two years later wrote to him 'Don't let anyone see your quartet as I have greatly changed it, as only now do I know how to write quartets properly'. It was a root-and-branch revision, a magnificent lesson in composition to any student (both versions can be found together in Section VI, Volume 3 of the Beethoven Edition published by Henle). The result was a work of considerable power in which the composer showed not only his mastery of structural subtlety but also a new grasp of quartet texture. Such lessons are evident in every moment.

The first movement is one of the most succinct and muscular statements in early Beethoven, and the first figure generates a remarkable range of growth. The directness and simplicity of its beginning did not come all at once; the sketches show that it had to be hammered out, and the way its terseness serves to make room for later expansion foreshadows the extraordinary achievement of Op 95. Notice how the little turning figure in the first theme is soon overlaid by a new counterpoint and then, as the music moves to the dominant, the second group floats and expands (with gentle syncopations) in a way we might not have supposed possible in a piece with so crisp a start. In the revision the development was drastically altered in its range of modulation and the perfection of its part-writing — of all the Opus 18 Quartets, this shows most democracy between the instruments.

Beethoven told Amenda that when composing the slow movement he had Romeo and Juliet in mind. He more than once responded to the promptings of Shakespeare but, as with the 'Pastoral' Symphony, would have insisted that the result was 'more an expression of feeling than painting'. This passionate D minor movement has something in common with the 'Largo e mesto' of the piano sonata in D, op 10 no 3. Both spaciously express a sense of tragedy beyond the ken of any of Beethoven's predecessors except Gluck, and the Quartet movement has a new refinement of sound, partly due to the way in which the composer removed many of the more vehement markings of the first version. The fining down of the dynamics makes all the more striking the intense outburst towards the end.

After this the Scherzo, far from being the usual release of energy after the restraints of a slow movement, is almost soothing. This is another sign of maturity — a quality we must never underestimate in Beethoven's early masterpieces. Too often his Opus 18 Quartets are patronisingly treated as the promising products of a student of genius, and we must not forget that already Beethoven is active in a territory unpredictable even by Haydn and Mozart. When these works were first heard the impression was of disconcerting but dazzling mastery of novel ideas. By the time this F major Quartet appeared, audiences were prepared for a fiercely aggressive Beethoven scherzo, so the quiet nature of this one provided a new kind of surprise, not contradicted by the abrupt humour of the humorously modulating Trio with its skipping octaves. In this Scherzo there is, as Basil Lam says, an element of 'unrest that links it with the first half of the Quartet' — but it is also an easement towards the rondo Finale.

When he revised it, Beethoven changed the marking for the Finale from 'Allegretto' to 'Allegro'. This means that he first thought of a not excessive speed, but may have felt that 'Allegretto' suggested too slow a pace. The 'Allegro' marking does not really mean 'very fast' (we have to remember that the literal meaning of the word is cheerful' or 'lively' — not quick) and there is great risk to the detail if the piece is rushed; its rhythmic vitality is the stronger for not being hurried. The quicksilver first subject is contrasted with singing elements that give the piece great spaciousness, and in this respect it balances the first movement. The development shows Beethoven's already great mastery of polyphony, a skill for which he has not always been given the credit. To the academics smoothness used to be the only acceptable attribute of good counterpoint.

from notes by Robert Simpson © 1990

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Details for CDA66401 track 2
Adagio affettuoso ed appassionato
Recording date
5 July 1989
Recording venue
Rosslyn Hill Unitarian Chapel, Hampstead, London, United Kingdom
Recording producer
Arthur Johnson
Recording engineer
Tim Handley
Hyperion usage
  1. Beethoven: String Quartets Op 18 Nos 1 & 2 (CDA66401)
    Disc 1 Track 2
    Release date: March 1990
    Deletion date: November 1999
    Archive Service
  2. Beethoven: String Quartets (CDH55021/8)
    Disc 1 Track 2
    Release date: November 1999
    Deletion date: October 2004
    8CDs Helios (Hyperion's budget label) — Deleted
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